May 7, 2019 is the 21st "World Asthma Day". As we all know, nasal cavity and trachea belong to airway, so allergic rhinitis and asthma often accompany each other!
According to the survey, about 78% of patients with asthma are accompanied by allergic rhinitis, and 38% of patients with allergic rhinitis are accompanied by bronchial asthma.
By taking this opportunity, let's talk something about rhinitis and asthma that you have to know.
What are they?
Allergic rhinitis is a non-infectious chronic inflammatory disease of nasal mucosa that is mainly mediated by IgE after the body is exposed to allergens.
Symptoms: sneezing, watery nasal discharge, nasal itching and nasal congestion can induce asthma attacks and eye allergy symptoms, including itchy eyes, watery eyes, red eyes and burning sensation.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway involving a variety of cells including eosinophils, mast cells, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, smooth muscle cells, airway epithelial cells and cell components.
Symptoms: recurrent wheezing, short of breath, chest tightness or cough.
According to the survey: The incidence rate of asthma in normal population is about 2-5%, while the incidence rate of asthma in patients with allergic rhinitis can reach as high as 20-40%, and even some people think that 60% of allergic rhinitis may develop into asthma.
At present, most scholars believe that allergic rhinitis and asthma are a kind of disease with the same nature in different positions of the same airway, that is, allergic diseases of respiratory tract.
How to prevent them?
The study shows that allergic rhinitis is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of asthma. The risk of asthma increases with the extension of the duration of allergic rhinitis or the increase of its severity.
Therefore, standardized treatment of nasal inflammation can effectively reduce lower airway inflammation and reduce the risk of asthma.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma
Firstly, it is important to identify allergens and avoid contact with allergens as much as possible
Secondly, it is important to formally, systematically and regularly conduct re-examination
Then, the medicines used for the treatment of rhinitis and asthma are also similar
Including anti-nasal or/and inhalation (represented by budesonide) glucocorticoid medicines, leukotriene receptor antagonists and other comprehensive treatment measures. It should be emphasized that nasal spray corticosteroid and/or inhaled corticosteroid must be used under the instructions of doctors.
The inhaled corticosteroid used for rhinitis include budesonide nasal spray (Beishounin), fluticasone nasal spray, mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray, etc.
The inhaled corticosteroid for asthma include budesonide powder inhalant, budesonide formoterol powder inhalant, salmeterol fluticasone, beclomethasone formoterol aerosol, etc.
Antihistamines (antiallergic medicines): such as loratadine, cetirizine, azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray, etc.
Antileukotriene medicines: such as montelukast.